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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 30-37

Uncommon manifestations in tuberculosis: An expanding clinical spectrum from North India


1 Department of General Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Microbiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Department of Pathology, Popular Multispecialty Hospital, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Anju Dinkar
Department of Microbiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_242_21

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Background: Despite being given the best by the health department to eradicate the disease, an alarming rise of tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant public health concern in India. Recently, highly variable clinical manifestations of TB have been reported. This study highlights the unusual presentations of TB with a comprehensive overview of epidemiology, demography and risk factors in the expended clinical spectrum of TB patients and their outcomes. Methods: It is a retrospective study using the records of 503 TB patients of all age groups of either sex from July 2017 to January 2021 at two tertiary care hospitals in North India. Results: Out of 503 cases, pulmonary, extrapulmonary, and disseminated TB were 77.7%, 19.5%, and 2.8%, respectively. Among all TB cases, 36 (7.2%) had uncommon manifestations, including the most common was pyrexia of unknown origin in 12 (33.3%) cases and liver abscess in 5 (13.9%) cases, followed by pancytopenia in 4 (11.1%) cases and chyluria in 3 (8.3%) cases. Atypical skin nodules and multiple swellings were also noted in three (8.3%) cases. Male sex (58%) and rural area (66.7%) were dominant in TB with uncommon manifestation (TBU) cases. The mean age in TBU cases was 46.92 years, whereas 34.26 years in all TB cases. It was extremely significant. The statistically significant risk factors in the TBU case were low socioeconomic status (24, 66.7%), inadequate nutrition (11, 30.6%), and smoking (19, 52.8%). Conclusions: Early recognition of uncommon presentations is imperative to respond better.


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