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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 70-74

Changes of th1 and th2 cytokines levels among sudanese tuberculosis patients during treatment


1 Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Medical Laboratory Science, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan
2 Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Medical Laboratory Science, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan; Department of Medical Laboratories Technology, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University, Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Medical Laboratories Technology, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University, Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia
4 Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
5 Diabetes and Endocrine center, Military Hospital, Khamis Mashit, Saudi Arabia
6 Molecular section, National Council for Research, Khartoum, Sudan

Correspondence Address:
Miskelyemen A Elmekki
Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Medical Laboratory Science, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum
Sudan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_245_21

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Background: The interaction of T cells with infected macrophages depends on the interplay of cytokines produced in each cell, and this mechanism is a key to protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Extensive research has been devoted to studying the changes in systemic cytokine levels in patients with tuberculosis (TB), but the results are inconclusive. Determine Th1 and Th2 cytokine immune response levels among new TB patients compared to follow-up and healthy control. Design: Cross-sectional laboratory-based study. Setting: Immunology Laboratory, National Center for Research. Methods: Blood samples (n = 145) were collected from confirmed new TB cases, follow-up TB cases, and from healthy controls. Participants were initially diagnosed by microcopy using Ziehl–Neelsen smear method and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction using IS6110. Cytokine levels (interleukin-10 [IL-10], tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], and Interferon-gamma [IFN-γ]) were measured directly from plasma using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Main Outcome Measures: Measuring Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and TNF-α) and Th2 cytokine (IL-10). One hundred and forty-five cases (new TB cases, 85; follow-up, 25; and healthy control, 35) were included in this study. Results: The study population were mainly males (70.3%) compared to females (29.7%) and 87.5% aged between 21 to 60 year. The plasma IFN-γ levels were found significantly higher in new TB cases (mean 35.38 pg/m; confidence interval: 29.32–41.43) than in the follow-up patients and the healthy control (P = 0.000). There were no significant differences in TNF-α and IL-10 levels among the new TB cases and the follow-up and healthy control (P = 0.852 and P = 0.340, respectively). Conclusions: Direct plasma IFN-γ level can be used in TB patient follow-up as a recovery marker as it correlated well with the appearance of the disease and treatment response.


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