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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 394-399

A prospective study of the clinical profile of hemoptysis and its correlation with radiological and microbiological findings

Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Government Medical College, Amritsar, Punjab, India

Correspondence Address:
Harveen Kaur
Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Government Medical College, Amritsar, Punjab
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_137_22

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Background: The etiological pattern of hemoptysis has evolved, with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) becoming less prevalent as a cause. There is a paucity of literature regarding the spectrum of diseases that present as hemoptysis and the data related to detailed clinical profile are lacking. Hence, this study is taken up to determine the clinical profile of hemoptysis and its correlation with radiological and microbiological findings. Methods: This was a 3-year observational prospective study of a total of 50 patients who presented with active hemoptysis. Data were recorded from these patients for assessing the clinical characteristics, radiological, and microbiological correlation. Results: The most common etiologies of hemoptysis identified in this study were PTB in 60% of the patients, aspergilloma in 14%, followed by bronchiectasis in 8%, pneumonia in 8%, carcinoma lung in 4%, and lung abscess in 1 (2%). Mild hemoptysis was present in 8% of patients, whereas 42% had moderate hemoptysis, 18% of patients had severe, and 32% had massive hemoptysis. Sixty percent of patients had recurrent hemoptysis, and the majority of the patients, i.e., 68% tested negative on sputum smear examination for acid-fast bacillus. In 60% of patients, no growth was obtained in the sputum cultures. The most common organisms isolated from sputum cultures of the rest of the patients were Pseudomonas in 14%, Klebsiella in 10%, Escherichia coli in 4%, Staphylococci in 4%, and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 4% of the cases. The majority of the patients were having consolidation and cavitary disease. A highly significant correlation was noted between the radiological findings of consolidation, mycetoma, cystic shadows, lung mass, and lung abscess and the etiology of hemoptysis (P = 0.000). Conclusion: Hemoptysis of any volume implies a life-threatening process, which mandates immediate evaluation and treatment. It is evident that the etiological spectrum of hemoptysis is continuously changing, and more sophisticated investigations, better imaging techniques, bronchoscopic tools, availability of newer techniques in the developing world, and changing patterns of diseases, all contribute to these changes. Identification of the etiology, and localization of the bleeding site, is essential for the efficient management of hemoptysis.

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