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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 423-428

Novel and rare species of nontuberculous mycobacteria by Hsp-65 gene sequencing

1 Department of Microbiology, Nizams Institute of Medical Sciences, Panjagutta, Hyderabad, India
2 Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Nizams Institute of Medical Sciences, Panjagutta, Hyderabad, India

Correspondence Address:
Neelima Angaali
Raja Residency, Flat - 201, Street No. 7, Himayat Nagar - 500 029, Hyderabad
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_175_22

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Background: Nontuberculosis mycobacterium (NTM) is the emerging group of organisms being recognized as etiological agents for diverse clinical conditions such as lymphadenitis, cutaneous, and pulmonary or disseminated lesions. Diverse background patients can acquire these infections such as immunocompetent, immunocompromised patients, or postoperative settings. Rapid addition of newer strains to this group necessitates heightened suspicion in the clinical settings. Specific requirements for cultures, biochemical testing, and molecular methods are needed to diagnose these organisms. Methods: The prospective study conducted at Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences from January 2019 to December 2021 using various clinical samples using molecular techniques such as line probe assay and hsp-65 gene sequencing to discover new NTM species. The management is challenging since it requires prolonged treatment, multiple drugs, drug resistance, and individualization of treatment in the combination of surgery if needed. In this article, we describe three different NTM species which were not reported in India and highlight to consider these organisms in adequate clinical situation. Results: Mycobacterium iranicum is a rare strain with quick growth and scotochromogenic colonies that are orange-colored. Eight distinct strains were discovered in clinical samples from six different countries: Two each from Iran, Italy, Greece, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States. Two of the strains were recovered from cerebrospinal fluid, which is unusual. Mycobacterium species AW6 is an unidentified and unclassified Mycobacterium according to NCBI taxonomy. Mycobacteria malmoense has been linked to lymphadenitis, notably cervical adenitis in children, and pulmonary infection in the majority of cases. Using Line Probe Assay and hsp-65 gene sequencing, novel and uncommon species of NTM were detected from a clinical samples, including sputum and tissue. Conclusion: We report three unusual species of NTMs: M. iranicum, M. species-AW6, and M. malmoense for the first time in India. Novel and rare emerging species of NTMs need to be considered in diverse clinical situations for appropriate therapy and good clinical outcomes.

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