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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 435-441

Evaluation of xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis rifampicin for tuberculosis diagnosis in a reference laboratory

1 Biomedical Sciences Center, Adolfo Lutz Institute, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil
2 Tuberculosis Department, Epidemiological Surveillance Group, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil
3 Tuberculosis and Mycobacteriosis Laboratory, Adolfo Lutz Institute, São Paulo, Brazil

Correspondence Address:
Heloisa da Silveira Paro Pedro
Biomedical Sciences Center, Adolfo Lutz Institute, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_195_22

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Background: The Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rifampicin (MTB-RIF) is a technological innovation that presents precision and speed in the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). The study aimed to evaluate the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF in the TB diagnosis and compare its results with those of culture, species identification, Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (AST), and rpoB gene sequencing of discordant results in AST, used for the diagnosis of TB in a reference laboratory. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study of pulmonary and extrapulmonary samples requesting Xpert MTB/RIF and culture for TB diagnosis from 2015 to 2019 at Adolfo Lutz Institute-São Paulo/Brazil. The analysis was performed with Epi-Info 7.2.1, presenting the distribution of frequencies and, for comparative analyses, Pearson's Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used, considering P ≤ 0.05 as statistically significant. For variables agreement, the Kappa method was used. Results: A total of 1575 pulmonary and extrapulmonary samples were analyzed using Xpert MTB/RIF and culture, of which 293 were positive for the MTB Complex in both methodologies with a sensitivity of 94.55%; specificity of 95.97%; accuracy 95.69%; positive predictive value 85.53%; negative predictive value 98.59%, substantial agreement by Kappa 0.87, and detection sensitivity even at lower levels of bacillary load (P < 0.05). The Xpert MTB/RIF and AST showed concordant results (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The study brings forward that the Xpert MTB/RIF shows substantial agreement with the results of culture and AST, contributing to the diagnosis of TB and the rapid detection of resistance. The sequencing of resistant cultures in Xpert MTB/RIF and sensitivity in AST identified the H526N mutation, characterized by a low level of resistance to RIF.

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