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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 4: Model depicting the sequential and overlapping generation of superoxide, H2O2, and hydroxyl radical, and Fe (II) upon prolonged exposure of Mycobacterium smegmatis to moxifloxacin. The CFU profile and the sequential generation of three ROS upon prolonged exposure of Mycobacterium smegmatis cultures to moxifloxacin. Formation of superoxide, H2O2, and Fe (II), lead to the production of hydroxyl radical that inflict moxifloxacin target-specific mutations, causing the emergence of strains genetically resistant to moxifloxacin. The presence of a ROS scavenger, TU, or NADH oxidase (Nox) inhibitor, DPI significantly reduces the levels of ROS and the number of resister cells emerging from the population surviving in the presence of MBC of moxifloxacin. The images were drawn not to scale. MBC: Minimum bactericidal concentration, KP: Killing phase, ASP: Antibiotic-surviving phase, RGP: Regrowth phase, TU: Thiourea, NADH: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen, DPI: Diphenyleneiodonium chloride, ROS: Reactive oxygen species

Figure 4: Model depicting the sequential and overlapping generation of superoxide, H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>, and hydroxyl radical, and Fe (II) upon prolonged exposure of <i>Mycobacterium smegmatis</i> to moxifloxacin. The CFU profile and the sequential generation of three ROS upon prolonged exposure of <i>Mycobacterium smegmatis</i> cultures to moxifloxacin. Formation of superoxide, H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>, and Fe (II), lead to the production of hydroxyl radical that inflict moxifloxacin target-specific mutations, causing the emergence of strains genetically resistant to moxifloxacin. The presence of a ROS scavenger, TU, or NADH oxidase (Nox) inhibitor, DPI significantly reduces the levels of ROS and the number of resister cells emerging from the population surviving in the presence of MBC of moxifloxacin. The images were drawn not to scale. MBC: Minimum bactericidal concentration, KP: Killing phase, ASP: Antibiotic-surviving phase, RGP: Regrowth phase, TU: Thiourea, NADH: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen, DPI: Diphenyleneiodonium chloride, ROS: Reactive oxygen species